Medicinal Mushrooms 2nd Page


First Page - Click Here

Research on direct anti-viral and anti-microbial properties

HSV-1 cultured in vitro.

Research has shown that some mushrooms exhibit in vitro anti-viral, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal properties.[76] Although primary research has been published on in vitro tests of certain mushrooms showing these properties, this has not yet been borne out in reviews and their activity in humans remains unknown. These publications indicate the possibility of activity for further investigation:


 Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma tsugae (Reishi/Lingzhi)

Ganoderma lucidum
Ganoderma lucidum and ginseng being sold in Seoul, Korea.

Língzhī (Reishi Young-Ji, 灵芝, 영지) Chinese for "spirit plant" is the name for the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Several species of Ganoderma have been used in traditional Asian medicines for thousands of years. The medicinal effects of the mushroom are thought to be due to triterpenes like ganoderic acid, as well as beta-glucan compounds. The health benefits of reishi are described in Shen Nong's Herbal Classic and Pen T'sao Kang Mu ("Great Pharmacopoeia"). The Reishi mushroom is a symbol for health, and is depicted in the Emperor's residences in the Forbidden City as well as the Summer Palace. The Chinese goddess of healing Kuan Yin is sometimes depicted holding a Reishi mushroom.

Modern scientific research examining Reishi mushrooms has revealed a variety of potential health benefits. Research has shown Reishi may contain anti-cancer[92][93] and immune system enhancing properties.[94][95] Researchers have noted Reishi appers to have anti-bacterial,[96] anti-viral,[97][98] and anti-fungal properties.[99] Animal studies have noted Reishi may protect the liver[100][101] and protect against radiation.[102] A randomized clinical study noted Reishi improved urinary tract symptoms in men.[103] Research has shown that Reishi contains compounds that may act as ACE inhibitors,[104] inihibit blood platelets,[105] and fibrosis.[106]

 Trametes versicolor (Coriolus versicolor)

Trametes versicolor

Trametes versicolor (Coriolus versicolor, Turkey tail, Kawaratake, Yun-Zhi, 云芝) is probably the best documented medicinal mushroom. It is a mushroom which has provided the world with a leading cancer drug. The drug is known as Polysaccharide-K (Kresin, PSK, PSP) and its use is intended to counter-act the immune system depressing actions of common chemotherapeutic drugs. In Japan, the Health and Welfare Ministry (equivalent to the United States' Food and Drug Administration) approved Polysaccharide-K in the 1980s.[107] All health care plans in Japan cover the use of Polysaccharide-K.

Used in conjunction with chemotherapy, PSK has increased the survival time of cancer patients in randomized, control studies.[13] Large clinical trials have indicated it is useful in the treatment of stomach cancer (meta-analysis of 8,009 patients from eight randomized controlled trials),[108] colorectal cancer (randomized, controlled study of 448 patients),[109] small cell carcinoma of the lungs[citation needed], and non-small cell lung carcinoma.[110] Specifically, in vitro research has indicated that PSK may enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and etoposide.[111][112]

The United States' top-ranked[113] cancer hospital, the MD Anderson, has reported that Polysaccharide-K is a "promising candidate for chemoprevention due to the multiple effects on the malignant process, limited side effects and safety of daily oral doses for extended periods of time."[114] The MD Anderson has reported that there are 40 human studies, 55 animal studies, 37 in vitro studies, and 11 reviews published concerning Trametes versicolor or the isolate PSK.[115]

 Grifola frondosa (Maitake)

Grifola frondosa

Maitake (Hen of the Woods) is an edible mushroom commonly found on oak trees. Maitake has been researched for possible anti-cancer activity. Published research has demonstrated the following:

Experimental Model Experimental Effect (in vitro) Experimental Effect (in vivo) Experimental Effect (Clinical)
Breast cancer, Liver cancer, Lung cancer     Inhibited cancer development[116][117][118][119]
Lung cancer Inhibited metastasis[120]    
Murine cancer   Inhibited tumors and up-regulated immune system[117]  
Various cancer cell lines (including human and animal) Inhibited growth[121][122][123][124][125][126][127][128]    

In 2009, a phase I/II human trial, conducted by Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, showed Maitake could stimulate the immune systems of breast cancer patients.[12] In vitro research has also shown Maitake can stimulate immune system cells.[129] An in vivo experiment showed that Maitake could stimulate both the innate immune system and adaptive immune system.[130] In 1997, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved an Investigational New Drug Application for a portion of the mushroom.[131] Maitake may partially inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase (the same enzyme which is the target of Advil, Tylenol, and other NSAIDS).[20] An experiment showed that an exact of Maitake inhibited angiogenesis.[132]

 Agaricus subrufescens (Agaricus blazei)

Agaricus blazei

Agaricus blazei (Agaricus brasiliensis, Agaricus sylvaticus, Agarikusutake, Kawarihiratake, Himematsutake, 姫松茸) is a species of mushroom, that research has shown may stimulate the immune system and exhibit anti-cancer activity.[133] Unlike some other medicinal mushrooms, Agaricus blazei was not cultivated in the East until fairly recently. In Japan, Agaricus blazei is a highly popular alternative medicine, which is used by close to 500,000 people.[134] In Japan, Agaricus blazei is also the most popular complementary and alternative medicine used by cancer patients.[135] According to the Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, the number 2 ranked cancer hospital in the US according to U.S. News,[136] "there is some proof showing Agaricus extract may benefit patients with certain cancers. But more studies are needed to confirm these observations."[137]

Additional research suggests, Agaricus blazei can partially inhibit aspects of angiogenesis[138][139] and may inhibit the activity of pathogenic factors.[78][140][141][142] Most published research concerning Agaricus blazei is focused on it's potential as an anti-cancer agent as shown in the table below.

Experimental Model Experimental Effect (in vitro) Experimental Effect (in vivo) Experimental Effect (Clinical)
Colorectal cancer     Benefited hematological and immunological parameters[39]
Fibrosarcoma Inhibited growth via apoptosis[143] Inhibited growth[143]
Sarcoma   Inhibited angiogenesis. Inhibited growth[144][134][138]
Gynaecological cancer     Increased NK cell activity, quality of life[145]
Ovarian cancer Inhibited growth and metastasis via apoptosis induction[146] Inhibited metastasis, growth[146]
Lung cancer Inhibited growth via apoptosis[147] Inhibited metastasis, growth[146]
Leukaemia Inhibited growth via apoptosis[148][149][150] Inhibited growth[148][151]
Myeloma   Inhibited growth[152]
Hepatocarcinoma Inhibited abnormal collagen formation[153][154] Inhibited growth[155]
Stomach cancer Inhibited growth via apoptosis[147][156]
Prostate cancer Inhibited growth via apoptosis[157] Inhibited growth[157]
Skin cancer   Inhibited growth[158]  

 Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster mushroom)

Pleurotus ostreatus

The Oyster mushroom (Hiratake, píng gū, 平菇) naturally contains the statin drug Lovastatin. Research has also shown the oyster mushroom has anti-cancer properties. In vitro research has shown oyster mushrooms can reduce the growth of human breast and colon cancer cells.[159] An in vivo experiment showed a beta-glucan isolated from the mushroom reduced colon cancer growths in rats.[25] An in vivo experiment, demonstrated the mushroom's anti-cancer activity in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced cancer.[160]

 Agaricus bisporus (Common mushroom, Portobello, Champignon mushroom)

Agaricus bisporus

The White Button, Crimini, and Portobello (Common mushroom, Champignon mushroom) is the world's most popular edible mushroom, and is known by many names. The French, play a role in this mushroom's popularity, having cultivated the mushroom since the 1600s.[161] Researchers at the City of Hope National Medical Center are studying whether this mushroom may inhibit breast cancer development.[10] Agaricus bisporus mushrooms may reduce the risk of breast cancer, because white button mushrooms have been shown in vitro to inhibit the enzyme aromatase, which is used by the body to create estrogen.[73][74]

A case-control study in southeast China compared the diets of 1009 women had been diagnosed with breast cancer with 1009 healthy women. Compared to non-consumers of mushrooms, women who consumed at least 10 grams of fresh mushrooms per day had a breast cancer risk of only 36% (95% confidence interval, 25%-51%). The risk for those who consumed at least 4 grams of dried mushrooms per day was 53% (95% CI, 38%-73%).[162][163] A similar case-control study involving 362 Korean women with breast cancer also found a strong association between mushroom consumption and decreased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal, but not premenopausal, women.[164] The FDA and the National Cancer Institute have proposed to study U.S. (NHANES) food consumption data to explore whether mushrooms and their vitamin D-2 content may reduce the risk of breast cancer.[165]

In vivo research conducted on mice suggests the white button mushroom may enhance aspects of the immune system.[166][167] In vitro testing has shown a compound present in the white button mushroom has anti-cancer properties, inhibiting the growth of various cancer cell lines.[168] The white button mushroom is also a rare vegetable source of conjugated linoleic acid.[74][169]

 Lentinula edodes (Shiitake)

Lentinula edodes

Shiitake (椎茸, 香菇, 표고) is a popular culinary mushroom used in dishes around the world. The mushroom also has a extensive history as a folk remedy. During the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368–1644), physician Wu Juei wrote that Shiitake was a remedy for upper respiratory diseases, poor blood circulation, liver trouble, exhaustion, and weakness. Modern research has indicated that Shiitake mushroom may stimulate the immune system,[170] possess anti-bacterial properties,[171][172][173] reduce platelet aggregation,[174] and possess anti-viral properties,[170][175][84][85][86][83] possibly through anti-viral agents known as proteinase inhibitors.[87]

 Lentinula edodes isolate AHCC

Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is an α-glucan rich compound isolated from Shiitake.[176] In Japan, AHCC is the second most popular complementary and alternative medicine used by cancer patients.[135] AHCC is a well tolerated compound[176] and is metabolized via the CYP450 2D6 pathway.[177] In Japan, AHCC is the 2nd most popular complementary and alternative medicine used by cancer patients.

In addition, animal research has shown that AHCC may increase the body's resistance to pathogens as shown in experiments with the influenza virus,[178][179] west nile encephalitis virus,[180] and bacterial infection.[181][182][183] Animal research has shown AHCC may enhance immune function.[184][185] A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 21 people supported the idea that AHCC may enhance immune function.[186] Clinical research has shown AHCC may benefit patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.[187][188] A published case study reported AHCC benefited a patient with prostate cancer.[189]

 Lentinula edodes isolate Lentinan

Lentinan, a compound isolated from Shiitake, is used as an intravenous anti-cancer agent in some countries.[190] Studies have demonstrated lentinan, possesses anti-tumor properties,[191] and human clinical studies have associated lentinan with a higher survival rate, higher quality of life, and lower re-occurrence of cancer. Clinical research with lentinan includes studies with, 78 hepatocellular carcinoma patients[192] 32 gastric cancer patients,[193] a multi-institutional study of lentinan and gastric cancer,[194] a meta-analysis of lentinan and gastric cancer,[195] 80 colorectal cancer patients,[196] 20 gastric cancer patients,[197] 36 hepatocellular carcinoma patients,[198] and 29 pancreatic cancer patients.[199] The City of Hope National Medical Center is currently conducting clinical trials to determine if a select portion of the Shiitake mushroom, which includes Lentinan, can inhibit lung cancer.[11]

 Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane Mushroom, Yamabushitake, 山伏茸, 猴头菇) has been researched for possible anti-dementia activity. In vitro experiments with hericium have demonstrated its ability to stimulate rat nerve cells,[200] stimulate nerve growth factor in human astrocytoma cells,[201] and stimulate myelination.[202] Additionally, a double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial showed that supplementation with hericium improved cognitive ability.[203]

 Flammulina velutipes (Enokitake)

Flammulina velutipes

Enokitake (えのき茸, 팽이버섯) are long, thin white mushrooms commonly used in Asian cuisines. Enokitake mushrooms contain compounds with anti-tumor activity and epidemiological studies in Japan have associated the mushroom with lower cancer rates.[204] In vivo research showed that Proflamin, a compound isolated from Enokitake provided an 85% longer survival time in mice with cancer.[205] Another in vivo study showed that Enokitake demonstrated anti-cancer activity in Swiss albino mice with Sarcoma 180.[206]

 Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom)

Inonotus obliquus

The Chaga mushroom (Kabanoanatake) has anti-cancer properties and may be able to stimulate the immune system.[41][207][208] In one experiment, mice implanted with B16F10-melanoma, showed a 4.07-fold increase in survival rate when given a compound isolated from the Chaga mushroom.[209] The Chaga mushroom contains betulin and inotodiol, two compounds which have demonstrated ability to induce apoptosis of certain cancer cell lines (mouse leukemia P388 cells, Jurkat cells).[210][211] Researchers have noted the Chaga mushroom has anti-inflammatory properties.[212][213] For centuries, Chaga mushrooms have been used in Russia for medicinal purposes.[7]

 Sparassis crispa

Sparassis crispa

Sparassis crispa (Cauliflower mushroom, Hanabiratake) has been found, in vivo, to contain compounds which stimulate the immune system and offer an anti-cancer effect.[214] In vivo research showed a compound contained in the mushroom inhibited solid Sarcoma 180 tumors in mice.[215] An in vivo experiment with leukopenic mice, noted that a beta-glucan isolated from the mushroom stimulated white blood cell production.[216] One in vitro experiment with human blood cells noted an extract of the mushroom could stimulate IL-8 production.[217]

 Pleurotus eryngii (King oyster mushroom)

Pleurotus eryngii

Pleurotus eryngii (King oyster mushroom, 杏鮑菇, エリンギ) is an edible mushroom. In vitro research with murine T-cells, showed King Oyster mushrooms may stimulate the immune system by way of increasing production of interferon-gamma and IL-4.[218]

 Piptoporus betulinus

Piptoporus betulinus

Piptoporus betulinus (Birch bracket mushroom, Kanbatake) may posses anti-cancer properties (due to the mushroom's ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase enzymes),[219] anti-inflammatory properties,[220][221] anti-bacterial properties,[222] and anti-viral properties.[223] Ötzi the Iceman, a mummified human from 3300 BC, was found carrying Piptoporus betulinus wrapped in a leather string.[224] Some have speculated it was used medicinally, due to the fact the mummy was found to have intestinal parasites, including whipworm.

 Agrocybe aegerita

Agrocybe aegerita

Agrocybe aegerita (Chestnut mushroom, Velvet pioppino, Agrocybe cylindracea, Yanagimatsutake, Zhuzhuang-tiantougu) contains compounds with inhibitory properties against the enzyme cyclooxygenase (the same enzyme which is the target of Advil, Tylenol, and other NSAIDS).[225] An in vitro experiment, revealed the mushroom may offer anti-cancer and immune-stimulating properties.[226]

 Fomes fomentarius

Fomes fomentarius (Tinder conk mushroom, Tsuriganetabe) contains compounds with anti-cancer activity.[227]



Cordyceps (Caterpillar fungus, Tochukasu) is a parasitic fungus which grow out of insects it has infected. The fungus remains essentially dormant until the caterpillar dies; the fungus then replaces the caterpillar's body with its own material and grows its stalk upward and above-ground. The mushroom has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine as well as traditional Tibetan medicine.[228] In Tibet Cordyceps is a cash crop with an ever increasing value.[229] During the Nepalese Civil War fractions fought for control of the Cordyceps trade.[230] Recently, smugglers have been caught trying to import Cordyceps into China.[231] Research has indicated Cordyceps may promote cellular health,[232][233] have anti-depressant activity,[234] as well as possible anti-cancer activity.[235]

 Phellinus linteus

Extracts from Phellinus linteus (Mesima, Meshimakobu, Song-gen, Sang-hwang) have been used for centuries in traditional Korean medicine. A paper published by Harvard Medical School, reported that Phellinus linteus is a promising anti-cancer agent. However the paper states more research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind Phellinus linteus.[236] In vitro research published by the British Journal of Cancer, demonstrated one anti-cancer mechanism behind Phellinus linteus. It was found that the mushroom inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells by way of inhibiting the enzyme AKT, as well as inhibiting angiogenesis.[237]

 See also

 External links


  1. ^ a b c Borchers AT, Krishnamurthy A, Keen CL, Meyers FJ, Gershwin ME (March 2008). "The immunobiology of mushrooms". Experimental Biology and Medicine 233 (3): 259–76. doi:10.3181/0708-MR-227. PMID 18296732. 
  2. ^ Wasser SP, Weis AL (1999). "Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective". Critical Reviews in Immunology 19 (1): 65–96. PMID 9987601. 
  3. ^ a b Gunde-Cimerman N, Cimerman A (March 1995). "Pleurotus fruiting bodies contain the inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase-lovastatin". Experimental Mycology 19 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1006/emyc.1995.1001. PMID 7614366. 
  4. ^ . 
  5. ^ Ji Y, Bi JN, Yan B, Zhu XD (January 2006). "[Taxol-producing fungi: a new approach to industrial production of taxol]" (in Chinese). Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 22 (1): 1–6. PMID 16572833. 
  6. ^ Zhou X, Gong Z, Su Y, Lin J, Tang K (March 2009). "Cordyceps fungi: natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products". The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 61 (3): 279–91. doi:10.1211/jpp/61.03.0002. PMID 19222900. 
  7. ^ a b Golovko, V. A. (1999). "Effects of bioglycans isolated from birch fungiinonotus obliquus on electric activity of venous sinus cells in frog heart". Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 128: 888. doi:10.1007/BF02438075. 
  8. ^ [1], Sahih Muslim, Book 23, Chapter 27, Hadiths
  9. ^ Halpern, Georges M.; Miller, Andrew (2002). Medicinal mushrooms: ancient remedies for modern ailments. New York: M. Evans and Co. ISBN 0-87131-981-0. [page needed]
  10. ^ a b Di Rado, Alicia (July 2008). "A salad fixin' with medical benefits?". EHope (City of Hope National Medical Center) 7 (7). 
  11. ^ a b Di Rado, Alicia (November 2008). "Can a mushroom help fight lung cancer?". EHope (City of Hope National Medical Center) 7 (11). 
  12. ^ a b Deng G, Lin H, Seidman A (September 2009). "A phase I/II trial of a polysaccharide extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in breast cancer patients: immunological effects". Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 135 (9): 1215–21. doi:10.1007/s00432-009-0562-z. PMID 19253021. 
  13. ^ a b Kobayashi H, Matsunaga K, Oguchi Y (1995). "Antimetastatic effects of PSK (Krestin), a protein-bound polysaccharide obtained from basidiomycetes: an overview". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 4 (3): 275–81. PMID 7606203. 
  14. ^ Hetland G, Sandven P (March 2002). "beta-1,3-Glucan reduces growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophage cultures". FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 33 (1): 41–5. PMID 11985967. 
  15. ^ Amino M, Noguchi R, Yata J (September 1983). "[Studies on the effect of lentinan on human immune system. II. In vivo effect on NK activity, MLR induced killer activity and PHA induced blastic response of lymphocytes in cancer patients]" (in Japanese). Gan to Kagaku Ryoho 10 (9): 2000–6. PMID 6225393. 
  16. ^ Chan Y, Chang T, Chan CH (June 2007). "Immunomodulatory effects of Agaricus blazei Murill in Balb/cByJ mice". Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection 40 (3): 201–8. PMID 17639159. 
  17. ^ Masuoka, J (Apr 2004). "Surface glycans of Candida albicans and other pathogenic fungi: physiological roles, clinical uses, and experimental challenges" (Free full text). Clinical microbiology reviews 17 (2): 281–310. doi:10.1128/CMR.17.2.281-310.2004. ISSN 0893-8512. PMID 15084502. PMC 387410.  edit (review)
  18. ^ Roeder A, Kirschning CJ, Rupec RA, Schaller M, Weindl G, Korting HC (December 2004). "Toll-like receptors as key mediators in innate antifungal immunity". Medical Mycology 42 (6): 485–98. doi:10.1080/13693780400011112. PMID 15682636. 
  19. ^ Firenzuoli F, Gori L, Lombardo G (March 2008). "The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems". Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 5 (1): 3–15. doi:10.1093/ecam/nem007. PMID 18317543. 
  20. ^ a b Zhang Y, Mills GL, Nair MG (December 2002). "Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant compounds from the mycelia of the edible mushroom Grifola frondosa". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (26): 7581–5. doi:10.1021/jf0257648. PMID 12475274. 
  21. ^ Kim WG, Lee IK, Kim JP, Ryoo IJ, Koshino H, Yoo ID (July 1997). "New indole derivatives with free radical scavenging activity from Agrocybe cylindracea". Journal of Natural Products 60 (7): 721–3. doi:10.1021/np970150w. PMID 9249978. 
  22. ^ Kim MY, Seguin P, Ahn JK (August 2008). "Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (16): 7265–70. doi:10.1021/jf8008553. PMID 18616260. 
  23. ^ Wu Y, Wang D (February 2009). "A new class of natural glycopeptides with sugar moiety-dependent antioxidant activities derived from Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies". Journal of Proteome Research 8 (2): 436–42. doi:10.1021/pr800554w. PMID 18989955. 
  24. ^ Ker YB, Chen KC, Chyau CC (September 2005). "Antioxidant capability of polysaccharides fractionated from submerge-cultured Agaricus blazei mycelia". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (18): 7052–8. doi:10.1021/jf0510034. PMID 16131110. 
  25. ^ a b Bobek P, Galbavy S (2001). "Effect of pleuran (beta-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus) on the antioxidant status of the organism and on dimethylhydrazine-induced precancerous lesions in rat colon". British Journal of Biomedical Science 58 (3): 164–8. PMID 11575739. 
  26. ^ Shi YL, James AE, Benzie IF, Buswell JA (2002). "Mushroom-derived preparations in the prevention of H2O2-induced oxidative damage to cellular DNA". Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 22 (2): 103–11. doi:10.1002/tcm.10008. PMID 11835288. 
  27. ^ Cui Y, Kim DS, Park KC (January 2005). "Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 96 (1-2): 79–85. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.08.037. PMID 15588653. 
  28. ^ Park YK, Lee HB, Jeon EJ, Jung HS, Kang MH (2004). "Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay". BioFactors 21 (1-4): 109–12. doi:10.1002/biof.552210120. PMID 15630179. 
  29. ^ Babitskaia VG, Shcherba VV, Ikonnikova NV (2000). "[Melanin complex of the fungus Inonotus obliquus]" (in Russian). Prikladnaia Biokhimiia I Mikrobiologiia 36 (4): 439–44. PMID 10994193. 
  30. ^ Ye SF, Wakame K, Ichimura K, Matsuzaki S (March 2004). "Amelioration by active hexose correlated compound of endocrine disturbances induced by oxidative stress in the rat". Endocrine Regulations 38 (1): 7–13. PMID 15147233. 
  31. ^ Ye SF, Ichimura K, Wakame K, Ohe M (December 2003). "Suppressive effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compound on the increased activity of hepatic and renal ornithine decarboxylase induced by oxidative stress". Life Sciences 74 (5): 593–602. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2003.06.038. PMID 14623030. 
  32. ^ Bao HN, Ushio H, Ohshima T (November 2008). "Antioxidative activity and antidiscoloration efficacy of ergothioneine in mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract added to beef and fish meats". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (21): 10032–40. doi:10.1021/jf8017063. PMID 18841979. 
  33. ^ Ey J, Schömig E, Taubert D (August 2007). "Dietary sources and antioxidant effects of ergothioneine". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (16): 6466–74. doi:10.1021/jf071328f. PMID 17616140. 
  34. ^ Zhang HN, Lin ZB (February 2004). "Hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides". Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 25 (2): 191–5. PMID 14769208. 
  35. ^ Yang BK, Jung YS, Song CH (November 2007). "Hypoglycemic effects of Ganoderma applanatum and Collybia confluens exo-polymers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". Phytotherapy Research 21 (11): 1066–9. doi:10.1002/ptr.2214. PMID 17600864. 
  36. ^ a b Liu, Y; Fukuwatari; Okumura; Takeda; Ishibashi; Furukawa; Ohno; Mori et al. (2008). "Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers.". Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 5 (2): 205–219. doi:10.1093/ecam/nem016. PMID 18604247. 
  37. ^ a b Kim, YW; Kim; Choi; Lee (2005). "Anti-diabetic activity of beta-glucans and their enzymatically hydrolyzed oligosaccharides from Agaricus blazei.". Biotechnology letters 27 (7): 483–7. doi:10.1007/s10529-005-2225-8. PMID 15928854. 
  38. ^ Hsu, CH; Liao; Lin; Hwang; Chou (2007). "The mushroom Agaricus Blazei Murill in combination with metformin and gliclazide improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial.". Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 13 (1): 97–102. doi:10.1089/acm.2006.6054. PMID 17309383. 
  39. ^ a b Fortes, RC; Novaes; Recôva; Melo (2009). "Immunological, hematological, and glycemia effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus on patients' colorectal cancer.". Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.) 234 (1): 53–62. doi:10.3181/0806-RM-193. PMID 18997106. 
  40. ^ Fortes RC, Novaes MR, Recôva VL, Melo AL (January 2009). "Immunological, hematological, and glycemia effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus on patients' colorectal cancer". Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) 234 (1): 53–62. doi:10.3181/0806-RM-193. PMID 18997106. 
  41. ^ a b Mizuno T (1999). "Antitumor and hypoglycemic activities of polysaccharides from the sclerotia and mycelia of Inonotus obliquus". International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 1 (1): 301–316. 
  42. ^ Kiho T, Sobue S, Ukai S (January 1994). "Structural features and hypoglycemic activities of two polysaccharides from a hot-water extract of Agrocybe cylindracea". Carbohydrate Research 251: 81–7. doi:10.1016/0008-6215(94)84277-9. PMID 8149381. 
  43. ^ Kiho T, Hui J, Yamane A, Ukai S (December 1993). "Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a polysaccharide from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 16 (12): 1291–3. PMID 8130781. 
  44. ^ Kiho T, Yamane A, Hui J, Usui S, Ukai S (February 1996). "Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXVI. Hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (CS-F30) from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis and its effect on glucose metabolism in mouse liver". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 19 (2): 294–6. PMID 8850325. 
  45. ^ Zhao CS, Yin WT, Wang JY (June 2002). "CordyMax Cs-4 improves glucose metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity in normal rats". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 8 (3): 309–14. doi:10.1089/10755530260127998. PMID 12165188. 
  46. ^ Lo HC, Tu ST, Lin KC, Lin SC (April 2004). "The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the fruiting body of Cordyceps in diabetic rats induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin". Life Sciences 74 (23): 2897–908. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2003.11.003. PMID 15050427. 
  47. ^ Li SP, Zhang GH, Zeng Q (June 2006). "Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide, with antioxidation, isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia". Phytomedicine 13 (6): 428–33. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2005.02.002. PMID 16716913. 
  48. ^ Konno S, Tortorelis DG, Fullerton SA, Samadi AA, Hettiarachchi J, Tazaki H (December 2001). "A possible hypoglycaemic effect of maitake mushroom on Type 2 diabetic patients". Diabetic Medicine 18 (12): 1010. doi:10.1046/j.1464-5491.2001.00532-5.x. PMID 11903406. 
  49. ^ Hong L, Xun M, Wutong W (April 2007). "Anti-diabetic effect of an alpha-glucan from fruit body of maitake (Grifola frondosa) on KK-Ay mice". The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 59 (4): 575–82. doi:10.1211/jpp.59.4.0013. PMID 17430642. 
  50. ^ Kubo K, Aoki H, Nanba H (August 1994). "Anti-diabetic activity present in the fruit body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). I". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 17 (8): 1106–10. PMID 7820117. 
  51. ^ Lo HC, Hsu TH, Chen CY (2008). "Submerged culture mycelium and broth of Grifola frondosa improve glycemic responses in diabetic rats". The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 36 (2): 265–85. doi:10.1142/S0192415X0800576X. PMID 18457360. 
  52. ^ Manohar V, Talpur NA, Echard BW, Lieberman S, Preuss HG (January 2002). "Effects of a water-soluble extract of maitake mushroom on circulating glucose/insulin concentrations in KK mice". Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism 4 (1): 43–8. doi:10.1046/j.1463-1326.2002.00180.x. PMID 11874441. 
  53. ^ Horio H, Ohtsuru M (February 2001). "Maitake (Grifola frondosa) improve glucose tolerance of experimental diabetic rats". Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 47 (1): 57–63. PMID 11349892. 
  54. ^ Matsuur H, Asakawa C, Kurimoto M, Mizutani J (July 2002). "Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from the seeds of balsam pear (Momordica charantia) and the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 66 (7): 1576–8. doi:10.1271/bbb.66.1576. PMID 12224646. 
  55. ^ Komoda Y, Shimizu M, Sonoda Y, Sato Y (February 1989). "Ganoderic acid and its derivatives as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors". Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 37 (2): 531–3. PMID 2743504. 
  56. ^ Hajjaj H, Macé C, Roberts M, Niederberger P, Fay LB (July 2005). "Effect of 26-oxygenosterols from Ganoderma lucidum and their activity as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors". Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71 (7): 3653–8. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.7.3653-3658.2005. PMID 16000773. 
  57. ^ Enman J, Rova U, Berglund KA (February 2007). "Quantification of the bioactive compound eritadenine in selected strains of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes)". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (4): 1177–80. doi:10.1021/jf062559. PMID 17256958. 
  58. ^ Alarcón J, Aguila S, Arancibia-Avila P, Fuentes O, Zamorano-Ponce E, Hernández M (2003). "Production and purification of statins from Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycetes) strains". Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, Journal of Biosciences 58 (1-2): 62–4. PMID 12622228. 
  59. ^ Khatun K, Mahtab H, Khanam PA, Sayeed MA, Khan KA (January 2007). "Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects". Mymensingh Medical Journal 16 (1): 94–9. doi:10.3329/mmj.v16i1.261. PMID 17344789. 
  60. ^ Hossain S, Hashimoto M, Choudhury EK (July 2003). "Dietary mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) ameliorates atherogenic lipid in hypercholesterolaemic rats". Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology 30 (7): 470–5. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1681.2003.03857.x. PMID 12823261. 
  61. ^ Bobek P, Galbavý S (October 1999). "Hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rabbits". Die Nahrung 43 (5): 339–42. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-3803(19991001)43:5<339::AID-FOOD339>3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 10555301. 
  62. ^ Opletal L, Jahodár L, Chobot V (December 1997). "Evidence for the anti-hyperlipidaemic activity of the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus". British Journal of Biomedical Science 54 (4): 240–3. PMID 9624732. 
  63. ^ Bobek P, Ozdín L, Galbavý S (March 1998). "Dose- and time-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rats". Nutrition 14 (3): 282–6. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(97)00471-1. PMID 9583372. 
  64. ^ Bajaj M, Vadhera S, Brar AP, Soni GL (October 1997). "Role of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) as hypocholesterolemic/antiatherogenic agent". Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 35 (10): 1070–5. PMID 9475042. 
  65. ^ Bobek P, Ozdín L, Kuniak L, Hromadová M (March 1997). "[Regulation of cholesterol metabolism with dietary addition of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rats with hypercholesterolemia]" (in Slovak). Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských 136 (6): 186–90. PMID 9221192. 
  66. ^ Bobek P, Ozdín L, Kuniak L (August 1996). "Effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus Ostreatus) and its ethanolic extract in diet on absorption and turnover of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic rat". Die Nahrung 40 (4): 222–4. doi:10.1002/food.19960400413. PMID 8810086. 
  67. ^ Bobek P, Ozdín O, Mikus M (1995). "Dietary oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) accelerates plasma cholesterol turnover in hypercholesterolaemic rat". Physiological Research 44 (5): 287–91. PMID 8869262. 
  68. ^ Bobek P, Ozdin L, Kuniak L (1995). "The effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), its ethanolic extract and extraction residues on cholesterol levels in serum, lipoproteins and liver of rat". Die Nahrung 39 (1): 98–9. doi:10.1002/food.19950390113. PMID 7898579. 
  69. ^ Bobek P, Ozdin L, Kuniak L (March 1994). "Mechanism of hypocholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rats: reduction of cholesterol absorption and increase of plasma cholesterol removal". Zeitschrift Für Ernährungswissenschaft 33 (1): 44–50. doi:10.1007/BF01610577. PMID 8197787. 
  70. ^ Chorváthová V, Bobek P, Ginter E, Klvanová J (1993). "Effect of the oyster fungus on glycaemia and cholesterolaemia in rats with insulin-dependent diabetes". Physiological Research 42 (3): 175–9. PMID 8218150. 
  71. ^ Bobek P, Ginter E, Jurcovicová M, Kuniak L (1991). "Cholesterol-lowering effect of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in hereditary hypercholesterolemic rats". Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 35 (4): 191–5. doi:10.1159/000177644. PMID 1897899. 
  72. ^ Ginterová A, Janotková O (1981). "Utilization of fat and degradation of cholesterol by Pleurotus spp". Folia Microbiologica 26 (3): 228–31. doi:10.1007/BF02927429. PMID 7196867. 
  73. ^ a b Grube BJ, Eng ET, Kao YC, Kwon A, Chen S (December 2001). "White button mushroom phytochemicals inhibit aromatase activity and breast cancer cell proliferation". The Journal of Nutrition 131 (12): 3288–93. PMID 11739882. 
  74. ^ a b c Chen S, Oh SR, Phung S (December 2006). "Anti-aromatase activity of phytochemicals in white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)". Cancer Research 66 (24): 12026–34. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-2206. PMID 17178902. 
  75. ^ Liu J, Kurashiki K, Shimizu K, Kondo R (December 2006). "Structure-activity relationship for inhibition of 5alpha-reductase by triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma lucidum". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 14 (24): 8654–60. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2006.08.018. PMID 16962782. 
  76. ^ "The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms - Lindequist et al. 2 (3): 285 - Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine". 2005. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh107. Retrieved 2010-02-23. 
  77. ^ Faccin LC, Benati F, Rincăo VP (July 2007). "Antiviral activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts and of an isolated polysaccharide from Agaricus brasiliensis against poliovirus type 1". Letters in Applied Microbiology 45 (1): 24–8. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02153.x. PMID 17594456. 
  78. ^ a b Sorimachi K, Ikehara Y, Maezato G (July 2001). "Inhibition by Agaricus blazei Murill fractions of cytopathic effect induced by western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus on VERO cells in vitro". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 65 (7): 1645–7. doi:10.1271/bbb.65.1645. PMID 11515550. 
  79. ^ a b c d Eo SK, Kim YS, Lee CK, Han SS (December 1999). "Antiviral activities of various water and methanol soluble substances isolated from Ganoderma lucidum". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 68 (1-3): 129–36. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00067-7. PMID 10624872. 
  80. ^ a b Eo SK, Kim YS, Lee CK, Han SS (October 2000). "Possible mode of antiviral activity of acidic protein bound polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma lucidum on herpes simplex viruses". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 72 (3): 475–81. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00266-X. PMID 10996289. 
  81. ^ Akihisa T, Franzblau SG, Tokuda H (June 2005). "Antitubercular activity and inhibitory effect on Epstein-Barr virus activation of sterols and polyisoprenepolyols from an edible mushroom, Hypsizigus marmoreus". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 28 (6): 1117–9. doi:10.1248/bpb.28.1117. PMID 15930759. 
  82. ^ Mentel R, Meinsen D, Pilgrim H, Herrmann B, Lindequist U (November 1994). "In vitro antiviral effect of extracts of Kuehneromyces mutabilis on influenza virus". Die Pharmazie 49 (11): 859–60. PMID 7838873. 
  83. ^ a b Sarkar S, Koga J, Whitley RJ, Chatterjee S (April 1993). "Antiviral effect of the extract of culture medium of Lentinus edodes mycelia on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1". Antiviral Research 20 (4): 293–303. doi:10.1016/0166-3542(93)90073-R. PMID 8387258. 
  84. ^ a b Gordon M, Bihari B, Goosby E (1998). "A placebo-controlled trial of the immune modulator, lentinan, in HIV-positive patients: a phase I/II trial". Journal of Medicine 29 (5-6): 305–30. PMID 10503166. 
  85. ^ a b Tochikura TS, Nakashima H, Yamamoto N (1989). "Antiviral agents with activity against human retroviruses". Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2 (5): 441–7. PMID 2477523. 
  86. ^ a b Suzuki H, Okubo A, Yamazaki S, Suzuki K, Mitsuya H, Toda S (April 1989). "Inhibition of the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human immunodeficiency virus by water-soluble lignin in an extract of the culture medium of Lentinus edodes mycelia (LEM)". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 160 (1): 367–73. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(89)91665-3. PMID 2469420. 
  87. ^ a b Odani S, Tominaga K, Kondou S (June 1999). "The inhibitory properties and primary structure of a novel serine proteinase inhibitor from the fruiting body of the basidiomycete, Lentinus edodes". European Journal of Biochemistry 262 (3): 915–23. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1999.00463.x. PMID 10411656. 
  88. ^ Fu M, Lin J, Wu Z, Lin Q, Xie L (February 2003). "[Screening of proteins anti-tobacco mosaic virus in Pleurotus eryngii]" (in Chinese). Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 43 (1): 29–34. PMID 16276868. 
  89. ^ Wang HX, Ng TB (September 2000). "Isolation of a novel ubiquitin-like protein from Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom with anti-human immunodeficiency virus, translation-inhibitory, and ribonuclease activities". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 276 (2): 587–93. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3540. PMID 11027517. 
  90. ^ Collins RA, Ng TB (1997). "Polysaccharopeptide from Coriolus versicolor has potential for use against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection". Life Sciences 60 (25): PL383–7. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(97)00294-4. PMID 9194694. 
  91. ^ Chellal A, Lukasova E (March 1995). "Evidence for antibiotics in the two Algerien truffles Terfezia and Tirmania". Pharmazie 50 (3): 228–9. PMID 7732062. 
  92. ^ Yuen JW, Gohel MD (2005). "Anticancer effects of Ganoderma lucidum: a review of scientific evidence". Nutrition and Cancer 53 (1): 11–7. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5301_2. PMID 16351502. 
  93. ^ Sliva D (December 2003). "Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) in cancer treatment". Integrative Cancer Therapies 2 (4): 358–64. doi:10.1177/1534735403259066. PMID 14713328. 
  94. ^ Lin ZB, Zhang HN (November 2004). "Anti-tumor and immunoregulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum and its possible mechanisms". Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 25 (11): 1387–95. PMID 15525457. 
  95. ^ Kuo MC, Weng CY, Ha CL, Wu MJ (January 2006). "Ganoderma lucidum mycelia enhance innate immunity by activating NF-kappaB". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 103 (2): 217–22. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.010. PMID 16169168. 
  96. ^ Moradali MF, Mostafavi H, Hejaroude GA, Tehrani AS, Abbasi M, Ghods S (2006). "Investigation of potential antibacterial properties of methanol extracts from fungus Ganoderma applanatum". Chemotherapy 52 (5): 241–4. doi:10.1159/000094866. PMID 16899973. 
  97. ^ Li Y, Yang Y, Fang L, Zhang Z, Jin J, Zhang K (2006). "Anti-hepatitis activities in the broth of Ganoderma lucidum supplemented with a Chinese herbal medicine". The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 34 (2): 341–9. doi:10.1142/S0192415X06003874. PMID 16552843. 
  98. ^ Wang HX, Ng TB (September 2006). "A laccase from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 72 (3): 508–13. doi:10.1007/s00253-006-0314-9. PMID 16636832. 
  99. ^ Wang H, Ng TB (January 2006). "Ganodermin, an antifungal protein from fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum". Peptides 27 (1): 27–30. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.06.009. PMID 16039755. 
  100. ^ Wang X, Zhao X, Li D, Lou YQ, Lin ZB, Zhang GL (September 2007). "Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide on CYP2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A activities in BCG-immune hepatic injury in rats". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 30 (9): 1702–6. doi:10.1248/bpb.30.1702. PMID 17827724. 
  101. ^ Shi Y, Sun J, He H, Guo H, Zhang S (May 2008). "Hepatoprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum peptides against D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 117 (3): 415–9. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.02.023. PMID 18406549. 
  102. ^ Pillai, T; Nair, C; Janardhanan, K (2008). "Polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma lucidum occurring in Southern parts of India, protects radiation induced damages both in vitro and in vivo". Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 26: 80. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2008.02.004. 
  103. ^ Noguchi M, Kakuma T, Tomiyasu K (September 2008). "Randomized clinical trial of an ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms". Asian Journal of Andrology 10 (5): 777–85. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7262.2008.00361.x. PMID 18097505. 
  104. ^ Morigiwa A, Kitabatake K, Fujimoto Y, Ikekawa N (July 1986). "Angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitory triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum". Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 34 (7): 3025–8. PMID 3021351. 
  105. ^ Su CY, Shiao MS, Wang CT (February 1999). "Predominant inhibition of ganodermic acid S on the thromboxane A2-dependent pathway in human platelets response to collagen". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1437 (2): 223–34. doi:10.1016/S1388-1981(98)00012-2. PMID 10064905. 
  106. ^ Park EJ, Ko G, Kim J, Sohn DH (April 1997). "Antifibrotic effects of a polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, glycyrrhizin, and pentoxifylline in rats with cirrhosis induced by biliary obstruction". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 20 (4): 417–20. PMID 9145221. 
  107. ^ American Cancer Society (2008). "Coriolus Versicolor". 
  108. ^ Oba K, Teramukai S, Kobayashi M, Matsui T, Kodera Y, Sakamoto J (June 2007). "Efficacy of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curative resections of gastric cancer". Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 56 (6): 905–11. doi:10.1007/s00262-006-0248-1. PMID 17106715. 
  109. ^ Mitomi T, Tsuchiya S, Iijima N (February 1992). "Randomized, controlled study on adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK in curatively resected colorectal cancer. The Cooperative Study Group of Surgical Adjuvant Immunochemotherapy for Cancer of Colon and Rectum (Kanagawa)". Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 35 (2): 123–30. doi:10.1007/BF02050666. PMID 1735313. 
  110. ^ Hayakawa K, Mitsuhashi N, Saito Y (1997). "Effect of Krestin as adjuvant treatment following radical radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients". Cancer Detection and Prevention 21 (1): 71–7. PMID 9043766. 
  111. ^ Wan JM, Sit WH, Louie JC (March 2008). "Polysaccharopeptide enhances the anticancer activity of doxorubicin and etoposide on human breast cancer cells ZR-75-30". International Journal of Oncology 32 (3): 689–99. PMID 18292947. 
  112. ^ Hui KP, Sit WH, Wan JM (July 2005). "Induction of S phase cell arrest and caspase activation by polysaccharide peptide isolated from Coriolus versicolor enhanced the cell cycle dependent activity and apoptotic cell death of doxorubicin and etoposide, but not cytarabine in HL-60 cells". Oncology Reports 14 (1): 145–55. PMID 15944782. 
  113. ^ "Best Cancer Hospitals". US News and World Report. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  114. ^ "Coriolus versicolor". Complementary and alternative therapies for cancer patients. University of California. 
  115. ^ "CIMER - Coriolus versicolor Detailed Scientific Review - MD Anderson Cancer Center". Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  116. ^ Kodama N, Komuta K, Nanba H (2003). "Effect of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-Fraction on the activation of NK cells in cancer patients". Journal of Medicinal Food 6 (4): 371–7. doi:10.1089/109662003772519949. PMID 14977447. 
  117. ^ a b Kodama N, Komuta K, Sakai N, Nanba H (December 2002). "Effects of D-Fraction, a polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa on tumor growth involve activation of NK cells". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 25 (12): 1647–50. doi:10.1248/bpb.25.1647. PMID 12499658. 
  118. ^ Kodama N, Komuta K, Nanba H (June 2002). "Can maitake MD-fraction aid cancer patients?". Alternative Medicine Review 7 (3): 236–9. PMID 12126464. 
  119. ^ Nanba H, Kubo K (December 1997). "Effect of Maitake D-fraction on cancer prevention". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 833: 204–7. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1997.tb48611.x. PMID 9616756. 
  120. ^ Masuda Y, Murata Y, Hayashi M, Nanba H (June 2008). "Inhibitory effect of MD-Fraction on tumor metastasis: involvement of NK cell activation and suppression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression in lung vascular endothelial cells". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31 (6): 1104–8. doi:10.1248/bpb.31.1104. PMID 18520039. 
  121. ^ Fullerton SA, Samadi AA, Tortorelis DG (2000). "Induction of apoptosis in human prostatic cancer cells with beta-glucan (Maitake mushroom polysaccharide)". Molecular Urology 4 (1): 7–13. PMID 10851301. 
  122. ^ Lin JT, Liu WH (October 2006). "o-Orsellinaldehyde from the submerged culture of the edible mushroom Grifola frondosa exhibits selective cytotoxic effect against Hep 3B cells through apoptosis". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (20): 7564–9. doi:10.1021/jf0616762. PMID 17002422. 
  123. ^ Cui FJ, Li Y, Xu YY (April 2007). "Induction of apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells by polysaccharide-peptide GFPS1b from the cultured mycelia of Grifola frondosa GF9801". Toxicology in Vitro 21 (3): 417–27. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2006.10.004. PMID 17150327. 
  124. ^ Gu YH, Belury MA (March 2005). "Selective induction of apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) by an ethanol extract of Lentinula edodes". Cancer Letters 220 (1): 21–8. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2004.06.037. PMID 15737684. 
  125. ^ Konno S (2004). "Potential growth inhibitory effect of maitake D-fraction on canine cancer cells". Veterinary Therapeutics 5 (4): 263–71. PMID 15719326. 
  126. ^ Konno S (March 2007). "Effect of various natural products on growth of bladder cancer cells: two promising mushroom extracts". Alternative Medicine Review 12 (1): 63–8. PMID 17397268. 
  127. ^ Nanba H (September 1995). "Activity of maitake D-fraction to inhibit carcinogenesis and metastasis". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 768: 243–5. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1995.tb12130.x. PMID 8526356. 
  128. ^ Louie B, Rajamahanty S, Won J, Choudhury M, Konno S (September 2009). "Synergistic potentiation of interferon activity with maitake mushroom d-fraction on bladder cancer cells". BJU Int.. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2009.08870.x. PMID 19735256. 
  129. ^ Kodama N, Asakawa A, Inui A, Masuda Y, Nanba H (March 2005). "Enhancement of cytotoxicity of NK cells by D-Fraction, a polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa". Oncology Reports 13 (3): 497–502. PMID 15706424. 
  130. ^ Kodama N, Murata Y, Nanba H (2004). "Administration of a polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa stimulates immune function of normal mice". Journal of Medicinal Food 7 (2): 141–5. doi:10.1089/1096620041224012. PMID 15298759. 
  131. ^ "Chapter" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  132. ^ Lee JS, Park BC, Ko YJ (December 2008). "Grifola frondosa (maitake mushroom) water extract inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis through inhibition of reactive oxygen species and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation". Journal of Medicinal Food 11 (4): 643–51. doi:10.1089/jmf.2007.0629. PMID 19053855. 
  133. ^ Hetland G, Johnson E, Lyberg T, Bernardshaw S, Tryggestad AM, Grinde B (October 2008). "Effects of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on immunity, infection and cancer". Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 68 (4): 363–70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.2008.02156.x. PMID 18782264. 
  134. ^ a b Takaku T, Kimura Y, Okuda H (May 2001). "Isolation of an antitumor compound from Agaricus blazei Murill and its mechanism of action". The Journal of Nutrition 131 (5): 1409–13. PMID 11340091. 
  135. ^ a b Hyodo I, Amano N, Eguchi K (April 2005). "Nationwide survey on complementary and alternative medicine in cancer patients in Japan". Journal of Clinical Oncology 23 (12): 2645–54. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.04.126. PMID 15728227. 
  136. ^ "Best Cancer Hospitals - US News and World Report". Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  137. ^ "Sloan-Kettering - Agaricus". Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  138. ^ a b Niu YC, Liu JC, Zhao XM, Wu XX (January 2009). "A low molecular weight polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo". Oncol. Rep. 21 (1): 145–52. ISSN 1021-335X. PMID 19082455. 
  139. ^ Kimura Y, Kido T, Takaku T, Sumiyoshi M, Baba K (September 2004). "Isolation of an anti-angiogenic substance from Agaricus blazei Murill: its antitumor and antimetastatic actions". Cancer Science 95 (9): 758–64. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2004.tb03258.x. PMID 15471563. 
  140. ^ Chen L, Shao HJ, Su YB (March 2004). "Coimmunization of Agaricus blazei Murill extract with hepatitis B virus core protein through DNA vaccine enhances cellular and humoral immune responses". International Immunopharmacology 4 (3): 403–9. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2003.12.015. PMID 15037217. 
  141. ^ Chen L, Shao H (January 2006). "Extract from Agaricus blazei Murill can enhance immune responses elicited by DNA vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 109 (1-2): 177–82. doi:10.1016/j.vetimm.2005.08.028. PMID 16213597. 
  142. ^ Tryggestad AMA, Espevik T, Forland DT, Ryan L, Hetland G (2007). "The medical mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill activates NF-κB via TLR2". 13th International Congress of Immunology (Rio de Janeiro: Medimond): 2–23.  (Paper is not listed in the conference proceedings, ISBN 978-88-7587-379-0 )
  143. ^ a b Fujimiya Y, Suzuki Y, Oshiman K, Kobori H, Moriguchi K, Nakashima H, Matumoto Y, Takahara S, Ebina T, Katakura R (May 1998). "Selective tumoricidal effect of soluble proteoglucan extracted from the basidiomycete, Agaricusblazei Murill, mediated via natural killer cell activation and apoptosis.". Cancer Immunol Immunother (Springer Verlag) 46 (3): 147–159. doi:10.1007/s002620050473. ISSN 0340-7004. PMID 9625538. 
  144. ^ Gonzaga ML, Bezerra DP, Alves AP, et al. (January 2009). "In vivo growth-inhibition of Sarcoma 180 by an alpha-(1-->4)-glucan-beta-(1-->6)-glucan-protein complex polysaccharide obtained from Agaricus blazei Murill". Nat Med (Tokyo) 63 (1): 32–40. doi:10.1007/s11418-008-0286-4. ISSN 1340-3443. PMID 18726068. 
  145. ^ Ahn WS, Kim DJ, Chae GT, Lee JM, Bae SM, Sin JI, Kim YW, Namkoong SE, Lee IP (July-August 2004). "Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract, Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy". Int J Gynecol Cancer 14 (4): 589–94. doi:10.1111/j.1048-891X.2004.14403.x. ISSN 1048-891X. PMID 15304151. 
  146. ^ a b c Kobayashi H, Yoshida R, Kanada Y, Fukuda Y, Yagyu T, Inagaki K, Kondo T, Kurita N, Suzuki M, Kanayama N, Terao T (August 2005). "Suppressing effects of daily oral supplementation of beta-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei Murill on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis in mouse model". J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 131 (8): 527–538. doi:10.1007/s00432-005-0672-1. ISSN 0171-5216. PMID 15883813. 
  147. ^ a b Itoh H, Ito H, Hibasami H (December 2008). "Blazein of a new steroid isolated from Agaricus blazei Murrill (himematsutake) induces cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptotic chromatin condensation in human lung cancer LU99 and stomach cancer KATO III cells". Oncol. Rep. 20 (6): 1359–61. ISSN 1021-335X. PMID 19020714. 
  148. ^ a b Kim CF, Jiang JJ, Leung KN, Fung KP, Lau CB (March 2009). "Inhibitory effects of Agaricus blazei extracts on human myeloid leukemia cells". J Ethnopharmacol 122 (2): 320–6. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.12.025. ISSN 0378-8741. PMID 19162153. 
  149. ^ Jin CY, Moon DO, Choi YH, Lee JD, Kim GY (August 2007). "Bcl-2 and caspase-3 are major regulators in Agaricus blazei-induced human leukemic U937 cell apoptosis through dephoshorylation of Akt.". Biol Pharm Bull 30 (8): 1432–1437. doi:10.1248/bpb.30.1432. ISSN 0918-6158. PMID 17666799. 
  150. ^ Gao L, Sun Y, Chen C, Xi Y, Wang J, Wang Z (November 2007). "Primary mechanism of apoptosis induction in a leukemia cell line by fraction FA-2-b-ss prepared from the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill" (Free full text). Braz J Med Biol Res 40 (11): 1545–1555. ISSN 0100-879X. PMID 17934651. 
  151. ^ Tian, X (1994). "Clinical observation on treatment of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia with Agaricus blazei Murill". Journal of Lanzhou University (Medical Sciences) 20: 169–171. ISSN 1000-2812. 
  152. ^ Murakawa K, Fukunaga K, Tanouchi M, Hosokawa M, Hossain Z, Takahashi K (2007). "Therapy of myeloma in vivo using marine phospholipid in combination with Agaricus blazei Murill as an immune respond activator". Journal of Oleo Science 56 (4): 179–88. PMID 17898480. 
  153. ^ Angeli JP, Ribeiro LR, Bellini MF, Mantovani MS (January 2009). "Beta-glucan extracted from the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei prevents the genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2". Archives of Toxicology 83 (1): 81–6. doi:10.1007/s00204-008-0319-5. PMID 18528685. 
  154. ^ Sorimachi K, Akimoto K, Koge T (February 2008). "Inhibitory effect of Agaricu blazei Murill components on abnormal collagen fiber formation in human hepatocarcinoma cells". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 72 (2): 621–3. PMID 18256462. 
  155. ^ Pinheiro F, Faria RR, de Camargo JL, Spinardi-Barbisan AL, da Eira AF, Barbisan LF (November 2003). "Chemoprevention of preneoplastic liver foci development by dietary mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill in the rat". Food and Chemical Toxicology 41 (11): 1543–50. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00171-6. PMID 12963007. 
  156. ^ Jin CY, Choi YH, Moon DO, et al. (December 2006). "Induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in human gastric epithelial AGS cells by aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei". Oncology Reports 16 (6): 1349–55. PMID 17089060. 
  157. ^ a b Yu CH, Kan SF, Shu CH, Lu TJ, Sun-Hwang L, Wang PS (October 2008). "Inhibitory mechanisms of Agaricus blazei Murill on the growth of prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo". J. Nutr. Biochem. 20 (10): 753–64. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2008.07.004. ISSN 0955-2863. PMID 18926679. 
  158. ^ "Atlas World Usa, Inc - NIH Study". Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  159. ^ Jedinak A, Sliva D (December 2008). "Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells through p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway". International Journal of Oncology 33 (6): 1307–13. PMID 19020765. PMC 2796484. 
  160. ^ Zusman I, Reifen R, Livni O (1997). "Role of apoptosis, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p53 protein in chemically induced colon cancer in rats fed corncob fiber treated with the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus". Anticancer Research 17 (3C): 2105–13. PMID 9216672. 
  161. ^ "Mushrooms". Fruit & vegetable of the month. U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved 2009-10-13. 
  162. ^ Zhang M, Huang J, Xie X, Holman CD (March 2009). "Dietary intakes of mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women". International Journal of Cancer 124 (6): 1404–8. doi:10.1002/ijc.24047. PMID 19048616. 
  163. ^ "Health | Chinese food fights breast cancer". BBC News. 2009-03-17. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  164. ^ Hong SA, Kim K, Nam SJ, Kong G, Kim MK (February 2008). "A case-control study on the dietary intake of mushrooms and breast cancer risk among Korean women". International Journal of Cancer 122 (4): 919–23. doi:10.1002/ijc.23134. PMID 17943725. 
  165. ^ "Joint Fellowship Training Program Training". Interagency Oncology Taskforce. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  166. ^ Ren Z, Guo Z, Meydani SN, Wu D (March 2008). "White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice". The Journal of Nutrition 138 (3): 544–50. PMID 18287364. 
  167. ^ Wu D, Pae M, Ren Z, Guo Z, Smith D, Meydani SN (June 2007). "Dietary supplementation with white button mushroom enhances natural killer cell activity in C57BL/6 mice". The Journal of Nutrition 137 (6): 1472–7. PMID 17513409. 
  168. ^ Yu L, Fernig DG, Smith JA, Milton JD, Rhodes JM (October 1993). "Reversible inhibition of proliferation of epithelial cell lines by Agaricus bisporus (edible mushroom) lectin". Cancer Research 53 (19): 4627–32. PMID 8402638. 
  169. ^ W. J. Jang S. W. Hyung. "Production of natural c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11 CLA) by submerged liquid culture of mushrooms". Division of Applied Life Science (BK21), Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701, South Korea.. 
  170. ^ a b Yamamoto Y, Shirono H, Kono K, Ohashi Y (November 1997). "Immunopotentiating activity of the water-soluble lignin rich fraction prepared from LEM--the extract of the solid culture medium of Lentinus edodes mycelia". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 61 (11): 1909–12. doi:10.1271/bbb.61.1909. PMID 9404070. 
  171. ^ Hirasawa M, Shouji N, Neta T, Fukushima K, Takada K (February 1999). "Three kinds of antibacterial substances from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Shiitake, an edible mushroom)". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 11 (2): 151–7. doi:10.1016/S0924-8579(98)00084-3. PMID 10221419. 
  172. ^ Tsujinaka T, Yokota M, Kambayashi J, Ou MC, Kido Y, Mori T (1990). "Modification of septic processes by beta-glucan administration". European Surgical Research 22 (6): 340–6. doi:10.1159/000129120. PMID 2079094. 
  173. ^ Hatvani N (January 2001). "Antibacterial effect of the culture fluid of Lentinus edodes mycelium grown in submerged liquid culture". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 17 (1): 71–4. doi:10.1016/S0924-8579(00)00311-3. PMID 11137653. 
  174. ^ Shimada S, Komamura K, Kumagai H, Sakurai H (2004). "Inhibitory activity of shiitake flavor against platelet aggregation". BioFactors 22 (1-4): 177–9. doi:10.1002/biof.5520220136. PMID 15630278. 
  175. ^ Takehara M, Kuida K, Mori K (1979). "Antiviral activity of virus-like particles from Lentinus edodes (Shiitake). Brief report". Archives of Virology 59 (3): 269–74. doi:10.1007/BF01317423. PMID 222241. 
  176. ^ a b Spierings EL, Fujii H, Sun B, Walshe T (December 2007). "A Phase I study of the safety of the nutritional supplement, active hexose correlated compound, AHCC, in healthy volunteers". Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 53 (6): 536–9. doi:10.3177/jnsv.53.536. PMID 18202543. 
  177. ^ Mach CM, Fugii H, Wakame K, Smith J (2008). "Evaluation of active hexose correlated compound hepatic metabolism and potential for drug interactions with chemotherapy agents". Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology 6 (3): 105–9. PMID 19087767. 
  178. ^ Ritz BW, Nogusa S, Ackerman EA, Gardner EM (November 2006). "Supplementation with active hexose correlated compound increases the innate immune response of young mice to primary influenza infection". The Journal of Nutrition 136 (11): 2868–73. PMID 17056815. 
  179. ^ Nogusa S, Gerbino J, Ritz BW (February 2009). "Low-dose supplementation with active hexose correlated compound improves the immune response to acute influenza infection in C57BL/6 mice". Nutrition Research 29 (2): 139–43. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2009.01.005. PMID 19285605. 
  180. ^ Wang S, Welte T, Fang H (March 2009). "Oral administration of active hexose correlated compound enhances host resistance to West Nile encephalitis in mice". The Journal of Nutrition 139 (3): 598–602. doi:10.3945/jn.108.100297. PMID 19141700. 
  181. ^ Aviles H, O'Donnell P, Orshal J, Fujii H, Sun B, Sonnenfeld G (April 2008). "Active hexose correlated compound activates immune function to decrease bacterial load in a murine model of intramuscular infection". American Journal of Surgery 195 (4): 537–45. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2007.05.045. PMID 18304499. 
  182. ^ Ritz BW (September 2008). "Supplementation with active hexose correlated compound increases survival following infectious challenge in mice". Nutrition Reviews 66 (9): 526–31. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00085.x. PMID 18752476. 
  183. ^ Aviles H, O'Donnell P, Sun B, Sonnenfeld G (December 2006). "Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) enhances resistance to infection in a mouse model of surgical wound infection". Surgical Infections 7 (6): 527–35. doi:10.1089/sur.2006.7.527. PMID 17233570. 
  184. ^ Gao Y, Zhang D, Sun B, Fujii H, Kosuna K, Yin Z (October 2006). "Active hexose correlated compound enhances tumor surveillance through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses". Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 55 (10): 1258–66. doi:10.1007/s00262-005-0111-9. PMID 16362410. 
  185. ^ Aviles H, Belay T, Vance M, Sun B, Sonnenfeld G (October 2004). "Active hexose correlated compound enhances the immune function of mice in the hindlimb-unloading model of spaceflight conditions". Journal of Applied Physiology 97 (4): 1437–44. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00259.2004. PMID 15194672. 
  186. ^ Terakawa N, Matsui Y, Satoi S (2008). "Immunological effect of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) in healthy volunteers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". Nutrition and Cancer 60 (5): 643–51. doi:10.1080/01635580801993280. PMID 18791928. 
  187. ^ Cowawintaweewat S, Manoromana S, Sriplung H (March 2006). "Prognostic improvement of patients with advanced liver cancer after active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) treatment". Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology 24 (1): 33–45. PMID 16913187. 
  188. ^ Matsui Y, Uhara J, Satoi S (July 2002). "Improved prognosis of postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients when treated with functional foods: a prospective cohort study". Journal of Hepatology 37 (1): 78–86. doi:10.1016/S0168-8278(02)00091-0. PMID 12076865. 
  189. ^ Turner J, Chaudhary U (March 2009). "Dramatic prostate-specific antigen response with activated hemicellulose compound in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer". Anti-cancer Drugs 20 (3): 215–6. doi:10.1097/CAD.0b013e3283163c26. PMID 19104437. 
  190. ^ "Lentinian". About herbs. Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center. 2009. 
  191. ^ Kim HS, Kacew S, Lee BM (August 1999). "In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor)". Carcinogenesis 20 (8): 1637–40. doi:10.1093/carcin/20.8.1637. PMID 10426820. 
  192. ^ Yang P, Liang M, Zhang Y, Shen B (August 2008). "Clinical application of a combination therapy of lentinan, multi-electrode RFA and TACE in HCC". Advances in Therapy 25 (8): 787–94. doi:10.1007/s12325-008-0079-x. PMID 18670743. 
  193. ^ Nimura H, Mitsumori N, Takahashi N (June 2006). "[S-1 combined with lentinan in patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer]" (in Japanese). Gan to Kagaku Ryoho 33 Suppl 1: 106–9. PMID 16897983. 
  194. ^ Nakano H, Namatame K, Nemoto H, Motohashi H, Nishiyama K, Kumada K (1999). "A multi-institutional prospective study of lentinan in advanced gastric cancer patients with unresectable and recurrent diseases: effect on prolongation of survival and improvement of quality of life. Kanagawa Lentinan Research Group". Hepato-gastroenterology 46 (28): 2662–8. PMID 10522061. 
  195. ^ Oba K, Kobayashi M, Matsui T, Kodera Y, Sakamoto J (July 2009). "Individual patient based meta-analysis of lentinan for unresectable/recurrent gastric cancer". Anticancer Research 29 (7): 2739–45. PMID 19596954. 
  196. ^ Hazama S, Watanabe S, Ohashi M (July 2009). "Efficacy of orally administered superfine dispersed lentinan (beta-1,3-glucan) for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer". Anticancer Research 29 (7): 2611–7. PMID 19596936. 
  197. ^ Kataoka H, Shimura T, Mizoshita T (2009). "Lentinan with S-1 and paclitaxel for gastric cancer chemotherapy improve patient quality of life". Hepato-gastroenterology 56 (90): 547–50. PMID 19579640. 
  198. ^ Isoda N, Eguchi Y, Nukaya H (2009). "Clinical efficacy of superfine dispersed lentinan (beta-1,3-glucan) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma". Hepato-gastroenterology 56 (90): 437–41. PMID 19579616. 
  199. ^ Shimizu K, Watanabe S, Watanabe S (2009). "Efficacy of oral administered superfine dispersed lentinan for advanced pancreatic cancer". Hepato-gastroenterology 56 (89): 240–4. PMID 19453066. 
  200. ^ Park YS, Lee HS, Won MH, Lee JH, Lee SY, Lee HY (September 2002). "Effect of an exo-polysaccharide from the culture broth of Hericium erinaceus on enhancement of growth and differentiation of rat adrenal nerve cells". Cytotechnology 39 (3): 155–62. doi:10.1023/A:1023963509393. PMID 19003308. 
  201. ^ Mori K, Obara Y, Hirota M (September 2008). "Nerve growth factor-inducing activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31 (9): 1727–32. doi:10.1248/bpb.31.1727. PMID 18758067. 
  202. ^ Kolotushkina EV, Moldavan MG, Voronin KY, Skibo GG (2003). "The influence of Hericium erinaceus extract on myelination process in vitro". Fiziolohichnyĭ Zhurnal 49 (1): 38–45. PMID 12675022. 
  203. ^ Mori K, Inatomi S, Ouchi K, Azumi Y, Tuchida T (March 2009). "Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial". Phytotherapy Research 23 (3): 367–72. doi:10.1002/ptr.2634. PMID 18844328. 
  204. ^ Monro JA (August 2003). "Treatment of cancer with mushroom products". Archives of Environmental Health 58 (8): 533–7. doi:10.3200/AEOH.58.8.533-537. PMID 15259434. 
  205. ^ Ikekawa T, Maruyama H, Miyano T (February 1985). "Proflamin, a new antitumor agent: preparation, physicochemical properties and antitumor activity". Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 76 (2): 142–8. PMID 3920103. 
  206. ^ Ikekawa T, Uehara N, Maeda Y, Nakanishi M, Fukuoka F (March 1969). "Antitumor activity of aqueous extracts of edible mushrooms". Cancer Research 29 (3): 734–5. PMID 5813100. 
  207. ^ Kim YO, Han SB, Lee HW (September 2005). "Immuno-stimulating effect of the endo-polysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus". Life Sciences 77 (19): 2438–56. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.02.023. PMID 15970296. 
  208. ^ Rzymowska J (January 1998). "The effect of aqueous extracts from Inonotus obliquus on the mitotic index and enzyme activities". Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico 137 (1): 13–5. PMID 9595828. 
  209. ^ Kim YO, Park HW, Kim JH, Lee JY, Moon SH, Shin CS (May 2006). "Anti-cancer effect and structural characterization of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus". Life Sciences 79 (1): 72–80. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.12.047. PMID 16458328. 
  210. ^ Nomura M, Takahashi T, Uesugi A, Tanaka R, Kobayashi S (2008). "Inotodiol, a lanostane triterpenoid, from Inonotus obliquus inhibits cell proliferation through caspase-3-dependent apoptosis". Anticancer Research 28 (5A): 2691–6. PMID 19035296. 
  211. ^ Mullauer FB, Kessler JH, Medema JP (2009). "Betulin is a potent anti-tumor agent that is enhanced by cholesterol". PLoS ONE 4 (4): e1. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005361. PMID 19399186. 
  212. ^ Kim HG, Yoon DH, Kim CH (March 2007). "Ethanol extract of Inonotus obliquus inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells". Journal of Medicinal Food 10 (1): 80–9. doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.156. PMID 17472471. 
  213. ^ Park YM, Won JH, Kim YH, Choi JW, Park HJ, Lee KT (October 2005). "In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 101 (1-3): 120–8. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.04.003. PMID 15905055. 
  214. ^ Harada T, Miura NN, Adachi Y, Nakajima M, Yadomae T, Ohno N (December 2002). "IFN-gamma induction by SCG, 1,3-beta-D-glucan from Sparassis crispa, in DBA/2 mice in vitro". Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research 22 (12): 1227–39. doi:10.1089/10799900260475759. PMID 12581496. 
  215. ^ Ohno N, Miura NN, Nakajima M, Yadomae T (July 2000). "Antitumor 1,3-beta-glucan from cultured fruit body of Sparassis crispa". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 23 (7): 866–72. PMID 10919368. 
  216. ^ Harada T, Miura N, Adachi Y, Nakajima M, Yadomae T, Ohn N (July 2002). "Effect of SCG, 1,3-beta-D-glucan from Sparassis crispa on the hematopoietic response in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 25 (7): 931–9. doi:10.1248/bpb.25.931. PMID 12132673. 
  217. ^ Nameda S, Harada T, Miura NN (August 2003). "Enhanced cytokine synthesis of leukocytes by a beta-glucan preparation, SCG, extracted from a medicinal mushroom, Sparassis crispa". Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 25 (3): 321–35. doi:10.1081/IPH-120024500. PMID 19180796. 
  218. ^ Nozaki H, Itonori S, Sugita M (August 2008). "Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 alpha/beta TCR-double positive cells in vitro". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 373 (3): 435–9. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.06.047. PMID 18577373. 
  219. ^ Kawagishi H, Hamajima K, Inoue Y (December 2002). "Novel hydroquinone as a matrix metallo-proteinase inhibitor from the mushroom, Piptoporus betulinus". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 66 (12): 2748–50. doi:10.1271/bbb.66.2748. PMID 12596882. 
  220. ^ Wangun HV, Berg A, Hertel W, Nkengfack AE, Hertweck C (November 2004). "Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyaluronate lyase activities of lanostanoids from Piptoporus betulinus". The Journal of Antibiotics 57 (11): 755–8. PMID 15712671. 
  221. ^ Kamo T, Asanoma M, Shibata H, Hirota M (August 2003). "Anti-inflammatory lanostane-type triterpene acids from Piptoporus betulinus". Journal of Natural Products 66 (8): 1104–6. doi:10.1021/np0300479. PMID 12932134. 
  222. ^ Schlegel B, Luhmann U, Härtl A, Gräfe U (September 2000). "Piptamine, a new antibiotic produced by Piptoporus betulinus Lu 9-1". The Journal of Antibiotics 53 (9): 973–4. PMID 11099232. 
  223. ^ Kanamoto T, Kashiwada Y, Kanbara K (April 2001). "Anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of YK-FH312 (a betulinic acid derivative), a novel compound blocking viral maturation". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 45 (4): 1225–30. doi:10.1128/AAC.45.4.1225-1230.2001. PMID 11257038. 
  224. ^ [2][dead link]
  225. ^ Zhang Y, Mills GL, Nair MG (2003). "Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant compounds from the fruiting body of an edible mushroom, Agrocybe aegerita". Phytomedicine 10 (5): 386–90. doi:10.1078/0944-7113-00272. PMID 12834003. 
  226. ^ Yoshida I, Kiho T, Usui S, Sakushima M, Ukai S (January 1996). "Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXVII. Immunomodulating activities of carboxymethylated derivatives of linear (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans extracted from the fruiting bodies of Agrocybe cylindracea and Amanita muscaria". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 19 (1): 114–21. PMID 8820922. 
  227. ^ Ito H, Sugiura M, Miyazaki T (October 1976). "Antitumor polysaccharide fraction from the culture filtrate of Fomes fomentarius". Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 24 (10): 2575. PMID 1017096. 
  228. ^ Halpern, Georges M.; Miller, Andrew (2002). Medicinal mushrooms: ancient remedies for modern ailments. New York: M. Evans and Co. pp. 64–5. ISBN 0-87131-981-0. 
  229. ^ Mhaske SB, Argade NP (December 2001). "Concise and efficient synthesis of bioactive natural products pegamine, deoxyvasicinone, and (-)-vasicinone". The Journal of Organic Chemistry 66 (26): 9038–40. doi:10.1021/jo010727l. PMID 11749642. 
  230. ^ Baral N, Heinen JT (2005). "The Maoist people's war and conservation in Nepal". Politics and the Life Sciences 24 (1-2): 2–11. doi:10.2990/1471-5457(2005)24[2:TMPWAC]2.0.CO;2. PMID 17059316. 
  231. ^ "Indian police arrest 'caterpillar mushroom' smugglers". BBC News. 2009-11-23. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  232. ^ Ko WS, Hsu SL, Chyau CC, Chen KC, Peng RY (July 2009). "Compound Cordyceps TCM-700C exhibits potent hepatoprotective capability in animal model". Fitoterapia 81: 1. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2009.06.018. PMID 19596425. 
  233. ^ Liu WC, Wang SC, Tsai ML (December 2006). "Protection against radiation-induced bone marrow and intestinal injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese herbal medicine". Radiation Research 166 (6): 900–7. doi:10.1667/RR0670.1. PMID 17149981. 
  234. ^ Nishizawa K, Torii K, Kawasaki A (September 2007). "Antidepressant-like effect of Cordyceps sinensis in the mouse tail suspension test". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 30 (9): 1758–62. doi:10.1248/bpb.30.1758. PMID 17827735. 
  235. ^ "Scientists discover how wild mushroom cancer drug works". BBC News. 2009-12-29. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  236. ^ Zhu T, Kim SH, Chen CY (2008). "A medicinal mushroom: Phellinus linteus". Current Medicinal Chemistry 15 (13): 1330–5. doi:10.2174/092986708784534929. PMID 18537612. 
  237. ^ "Mushroom extract may stop breast cancer growth | Global Industries | Health & Drugs | Reuters". 2008-04-15. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 

First Page - Click Here