Medicinal Mushrooms 2nd Page

 

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Research on direct anti-viral and anti-microbial properties

HSV-1 cultured in vitro.

Research has shown that some mushrooms exhibit in vitro anti-viral, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal properties.[76] Although primary research has been published on in vitro tests of certain mushrooms showing these properties, this has not yet been borne out in reviews and their activity in humans remains unknown. These publications indicate the possibility of activity for further investigation:

 Species

 Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma tsugae (Reishi/Lingzhi)

Ganoderma lucidum
Ganoderma lucidum and ginseng being sold in Seoul, Korea.

Língzhī (Reishi Young-Ji, 灵芝, 영지) Chinese for "spirit plant" is the name for the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Several species of Ganoderma have been used in traditional Asian medicines for thousands of years. The medicinal effects of the mushroom are thought to be due to triterpenes like ganoderic acid, as well as beta-glucan compounds. The health benefits of reishi are described in Shen Nong's Herbal Classic and Pen T'sao Kang Mu ("Great Pharmacopoeia"). The Reishi mushroom is a symbol for health, and is depicted in the Emperor's residences in the Forbidden City as well as the Summer Palace. The Chinese goddess of healing Kuan Yin is sometimes depicted holding a Reishi mushroom.

Modern scientific research examining Reishi mushrooms has revealed a variety of potential health benefits. Research has shown Reishi may contain anti-cancer[92][93] and immune system enhancing properties.[94][95] Researchers have noted Reishi appers to have anti-bacterial,[96] anti-viral,[97][98] and anti-fungal properties.[99] Animal studies have noted Reishi may protect the liver[100][101] and protect against radiation.[102] A randomized clinical study noted Reishi improved urinary tract symptoms in men.[103] Research has shown that Reishi contains compounds that may act as ACE inhibitors,[104] inihibit blood platelets,[105] and fibrosis.[106]

 Trametes versicolor (Coriolus versicolor)

Trametes versicolor

Trametes versicolor (Coriolus versicolor, Turkey tail, Kawaratake, Yun-Zhi, 云芝) is probably the best documented medicinal mushroom. It is a mushroom which has provided the world with a leading cancer drug. The drug is known as Polysaccharide-K (Kresin, PSK, PSP) and its use is intended to counter-act the immune system depressing actions of common chemotherapeutic drugs. In Japan, the Health and Welfare Ministry (equivalent to the United States' Food and Drug Administration) approved Polysaccharide-K in the 1980s.[107] All health care plans in Japan cover the use of Polysaccharide-K.

Used in conjunction with chemotherapy, PSK has increased the survival time of cancer patients in randomized, control studies.[13] Large clinical trials have indicated it is useful in the treatment of stomach cancer (meta-analysis of 8,009 patients from eight randomized controlled trials),[108] colorectal cancer (randomized, controlled study of 448 patients),[109] small cell carcinoma of the lungs[citation needed], and non-small cell lung carcinoma.[110] Specifically, in vitro research has indicated that PSK may enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and etoposide.[111][112]

The United States' top-ranked[113] cancer hospital, the MD Anderson, has reported that Polysaccharide-K is a "promising candidate for chemoprevention due to the multiple effects on the malignant process, limited side effects and safety of daily oral doses for extended periods of time."[114] The MD Anderson has reported that there are 40 human studies, 55 animal studies, 37 in vitro studies, and 11 reviews published concerning Trametes versicolor or the isolate PSK.[115]

 Grifola frondosa (Maitake)

Grifola frondosa

Maitake (Hen of the Woods) is an edible mushroom commonly found on oak trees. Maitake has been researched for possible anti-cancer activity. Published research has demonstrated the following:

Experimental Model Experimental Effect (in vitro) Experimental Effect (in vivo) Experimental Effect (Clinical)
Breast cancer, Liver cancer, Lung cancer     Inhibited cancer development[116][117][118][119]
Lung cancer Inhibited metastasis[120]    
Murine cancer   Inhibited tumors and up-regulated immune system[117]  
Various cancer cell lines (including human and animal) Inhibited growth[121][122][123][124][125][126][127][128]    

In 2009, a phase I/II human trial, conducted by Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, showed Maitake could stimulate the immune systems of breast cancer patients.[12] In vitro research has also shown Maitake can stimulate immune system cells.[129] An in vivo experiment showed that Maitake could stimulate both the innate immune system and adaptive immune system.[130] In 1997, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved an Investigational New Drug Application for a portion of the mushroom.[131] Maitake may partially inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase (the same enzyme which is the target of Advil, Tylenol, and other NSAIDS).[20] An experiment showed that an exact of Maitake inhibited angiogenesis.[132]

 Agaricus subrufescens (Agaricus blazei)

Agaricus blazei

Agaricus blazei (Agaricus brasiliensis, Agaricus sylvaticus, Agarikusutake, Kawarihiratake, Himematsutake, 姫松茸) is a species of mushroom, that research has shown may stimulate the immune system and exhibit anti-cancer activity.[133] Unlike some other medicinal mushrooms, Agaricus blazei was not cultivated in the East until fairly recently. In Japan, Agaricus blazei is a highly popular alternative medicine, which is used by close to 500,000 people.[134] In Japan, Agaricus blazei is also the most popular complementary and alternative medicine used by cancer patients.[135] According to the Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, the number 2 ranked cancer hospital in the US according to U.S. News,[136] "there is some proof showing Agaricus extract may benefit patients with certain cancers. But more studies are needed to confirm these observations."[137]

Additional research suggests, Agaricus blazei can partially inhibit aspects of angiogenesis[138][139] and may inhibit the activity of pathogenic factors.[78][140][141][142] Most published research concerning Agaricus blazei is focused on it's potential as an anti-cancer agent as shown in the table below.

Experimental Model Experimental Effect (in vitro) Experimental Effect (in vivo) Experimental Effect (Clinical)
Colorectal cancer     Benefited hematological and immunological parameters[39]
Fibrosarcoma Inhibited growth via apoptosis[143] Inhibited growth[143]
Sarcoma   Inhibited angiogenesis. Inhibited growth[144][134][138]
Gynaecological cancer     Increased NK cell activity, quality of life[145]
Ovarian cancer Inhibited growth and metastasis via apoptosis induction[146] Inhibited metastasis, growth[146]
Lung cancer Inhibited growth via apoptosis[147] Inhibited metastasis, growth[146]
Leukaemia Inhibited growth via apoptosis[148][149][150] Inhibited growth[148][151]
Myeloma   Inhibited growth[152]
Hepatocarcinoma Inhibited abnormal collagen formation[153][154] Inhibited growth[155]
Stomach cancer Inhibited growth via apoptosis[147][156]
Prostate cancer Inhibited growth via apoptosis[157] Inhibited growth[157]
Skin cancer   Inhibited growth[158]  

 Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster mushroom)

Pleurotus ostreatus

The Oyster mushroom (Hiratake, píng gū, 平菇) naturally contains the statin drug Lovastatin. Research has also shown the oyster mushroom has anti-cancer properties. In vitro research has shown oyster mushrooms can reduce the growth of human breast and colon cancer cells.[159] An in vivo experiment showed a beta-glucan isolated from the mushroom reduced colon cancer growths in rats.[25] An in vivo experiment, demonstrated the mushroom's anti-cancer activity in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced cancer.[160]

 Agaricus bisporus (Common mushroom, Portobello, Champignon mushroom)

Agaricus bisporus

The White Button, Crimini, and Portobello (Common mushroom, Champignon mushroom) is the world's most popular edible mushroom, and is known by many names. The French, play a role in this mushroom's popularity, having cultivated the mushroom since the 1600s.[161] Researchers at the City of Hope National Medical Center are studying whether this mushroom may inhibit breast cancer development.[10] Agaricus bisporus mushrooms may reduce the risk of breast cancer, because white button mushrooms have been shown in vitro to inhibit the enzyme aromatase, which is used by the body to create estrogen.[73][74]

A case-control study in southeast China compared the diets of 1009 women had been diagnosed with breast cancer with 1009 healthy women. Compared to non-consumers of mushrooms, women who consumed at least 10 grams of fresh mushrooms per day had a breast cancer risk of only 36% (95% confidence interval, 25%-51%). The risk for those who consumed at least 4 grams of dried mushrooms per day was 53% (95% CI, 38%-73%).[162][163] A similar case-control study involving 362 Korean women with breast cancer also found a strong association between mushroom consumption and decreased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal, but not premenopausal, women.[164] The FDA and the National Cancer Institute have proposed to study U.S. (NHANES) food consumption data to explore whether mushrooms and their vitamin D-2 content may reduce the risk of breast cancer.[165]

In vivo research conducted on mice suggests the white button mushroom may enhance aspects of the immune system.[166][167] In vitro testing has shown a compound present in the white button mushroom has anti-cancer properties, inhibiting the growth of various cancer cell lines.[168] The white button mushroom is also a rare vegetable source of conjugated linoleic acid.[74][169]

 Lentinula edodes (Shiitake)

Lentinula edodes

Shiitake (椎茸, 香菇, 표고) is a popular culinary mushroom used in dishes around the world. The mushroom also has a extensive history as a folk remedy. During the Ming Dynasty (AD 1368–1644), physician Wu Juei wrote that Shiitake was a remedy for upper respiratory diseases, poor blood circulation, liver trouble, exhaustion, and weakness. Modern research has indicated that Shiitake mushroom may stimulate the immune system,[170] possess anti-bacterial properties,[171][172][173] reduce platelet aggregation,[174] and possess anti-viral properties,[170][175][84][85][86][83] possibly through anti-viral agents known as proteinase inhibitors.[87]

 Lentinula edodes isolate AHCC

Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is an α-glucan rich compound isolated from Shiitake.[176] In Japan, AHCC is the second most popular complementary and alternative medicine used by cancer patients.[135] AHCC is a well tolerated compound[176] and is metabolized via the CYP450 2D6 pathway.[177] In Japan, AHCC is the 2nd most popular complementary and alternative medicine used by cancer patients.

In addition, animal research has shown that AHCC may increase the body's resistance to pathogens as shown in experiments with the influenza virus,[178][179] west nile encephalitis virus,[180] and bacterial infection.[181][182][183] Animal research has shown AHCC may enhance immune function.[184][185] A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 21 people supported the idea that AHCC may enhance immune function.[186] Clinical research has shown AHCC may benefit patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.[187][188] A published case study reported AHCC benefited a patient with prostate cancer.[189]

 Lentinula edodes isolate Lentinan

Lentinan, a compound isolated from Shiitake, is used as an intravenous anti-cancer agent in some countries.[190] Studies have demonstrated lentinan, possesses anti-tumor properties,[191] and human clinical studies have associated lentinan with a higher survival rate, higher quality of life, and lower re-occurrence of cancer. Clinical research with lentinan includes studies with, 78 hepatocellular carcinoma patients[192] 32 gastric cancer patients,[193] a multi-institutional study of lentinan and gastric cancer,[194] a meta-analysis of lentinan and gastric cancer,[195] 80 colorectal cancer patients,[196] 20 gastric cancer patients,[197] 36 hepatocellular carcinoma patients,[198] and 29 pancreatic cancer patients.[199] The City of Hope National Medical Center is currently conducting clinical trials to determine if a select portion of the Shiitake mushroom, which includes Lentinan, can inhibit lung cancer.[11]

 Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus

Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane Mushroom, Yamabushitake, 山伏茸, 猴头菇) has been researched for possible anti-dementia activity. In vitro experiments with hericium have demonstrated its ability to stimulate rat nerve cells,[200] stimulate nerve growth factor in human astrocytoma cells,[201] and stimulate myelination.[202] Additionally, a double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial showed that supplementation with hericium improved cognitive ability.[203]

 Flammulina velutipes (Enokitake)

Flammulina velutipes

Enokitake (えのき茸, 팽이버섯) are long, thin white mushrooms commonly used in Asian cuisines. Enokitake mushrooms contain compounds with anti-tumor activity and epidemiological studies in Japan have associated the mushroom with lower cancer rates.[204] In vivo research showed that Proflamin, a compound isolated from Enokitake provided an 85% longer survival time in mice with cancer.[205] Another in vivo study showed that Enokitake demonstrated anti-cancer activity in Swiss albino mice with Sarcoma 180.[206]

 Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom)

Inonotus obliquus

The Chaga mushroom (Kabanoanatake) has anti-cancer properties and may be able to stimulate the immune system.[41][207][208] In one experiment, mice implanted with B16F10-melanoma, showed a 4.07-fold increase in survival rate when given a compound isolated from the Chaga mushroom.[209] The Chaga mushroom contains betulin and inotodiol, two compounds which have demonstrated ability to induce apoptosis of certain cancer cell lines (mouse leukemia P388 cells, Jurkat cells).[210][211] Researchers have noted the Chaga mushroom has anti-inflammatory properties.[212][213] For centuries, Chaga mushrooms have been used in Russia for medicinal purposes.[7]

 Sparassis crispa

Sparassis crispa

Sparassis crispa (Cauliflower mushroom, Hanabiratake) has been found, in vivo, to contain compounds which stimulate the immune system and offer an anti-cancer effect.[214] In vivo research showed a compound contained in the mushroom inhibited solid Sarcoma 180 tumors in mice.[215] An in vivo experiment with leukopenic mice, noted that a beta-glucan isolated from the mushroom stimulated white blood cell production.[216] One in vitro experiment with human blood cells noted an extract of the mushroom could stimulate IL-8 production.[217]

 Pleurotus eryngii (King oyster mushroom)

Pleurotus eryngii

Pleurotus eryngii (King oyster mushroom, 杏鮑菇, エリンギ) is an edible mushroom. In vitro research with murine T-cells, showed King Oyster mushrooms may stimulate the immune system by way of increasing production of interferon-gamma and IL-4.[218]

 Piptoporus betulinus

Piptoporus betulinus

Piptoporus betulinus (Birch bracket mushroom, Kanbatake) may posses anti-cancer properties (due to the mushroom's ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase enzymes),[219] anti-inflammatory properties,[220][221] anti-bacterial properties,[222] and anti-viral properties.[223] Ötzi the Iceman, a mummified human from 3300 BC, was found carrying Piptoporus betulinus wrapped in a leather string.[224] Some have speculated it was used medicinally, due to the fact the mummy was found to have intestinal parasites, including whipworm.

 Agrocybe aegerita

Agrocybe aegerita

Agrocybe aegerita (Chestnut mushroom, Velvet pioppino, Agrocybe cylindracea, Yanagimatsutake, Zhuzhuang-tiantougu) contains compounds with inhibitory properties against the enzyme cyclooxygenase (the same enzyme which is the target of Advil, Tylenol, and other NSAIDS).[225] An in vitro experiment, revealed the mushroom may offer anti-cancer and immune-stimulating properties.[226]

 Fomes fomentarius

Fomes fomentarius (Tinder conk mushroom, Tsuriganetabe) contains compounds with anti-cancer activity.[227]

 Cordyceps

Cordyceps

Cordyceps (Caterpillar fungus, Tochukasu) is a parasitic fungus which grow out of insects it has infected. The fungus remains essentially dormant until the caterpillar dies; the fungus then replaces the caterpillar's body with its own material and grows its stalk upward and above-ground. The mushroom has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine as well as traditional Tibetan medicine.[228] In Tibet Cordyceps is a cash crop with an ever increasing value.[229] During the Nepalese Civil War fractions fought for control of the Cordyceps trade.[230] Recently, smugglers have been caught trying to import Cordyceps into China.[231] Research has indicated Cordyceps may promote cellular health,[232][233] have anti-depressant activity,[234] as well as possible anti-cancer activity.[235]

 Phellinus linteus

Extracts from Phellinus linteus (Mesima, Meshimakobu, Song-gen, Sang-hwang) have been used for centuries in traditional Korean medicine. A paper published by Harvard Medical School, reported that Phellinus linteus is a promising anti-cancer agent. However the paper states more research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind Phellinus linteus.[236] In vitro research published by the British Journal of Cancer, demonstrated one anti-cancer mechanism behind Phellinus linteus. It was found that the mushroom inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells by way of inhibiting the enzyme AKT, as well as inhibiting angiogenesis.[237]

 See also

 External links

 References

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